GeneLife Generations FAQs
- What is GeneLife Generations?
- GeneLife Generations is a genetic composition analysis service that comprehensively predicts your shared genetic composition from generation to generation. Along with your shared genetic ancestral composition analysis this reports also includes that you paternal and maternal ancestors’ analysis and predicts their origins and migration routes, traced back from approximately 150,000 to 270,000 years ago. The report will outline your unique ethnic mix and will unfold geographical insights from your family’s migration history.
- How would I know if my ethnicity is covered? How many do you test for?
- This test kit has been specifically developed for Asian populations, unveiling the various unique ethnic origins through detailed, engaging and rich content. These Asian ethnic groups include Chinese Dai, Northern/Southern Han, Singaporean Malay, Vietnamese Kinh, Filipino, Thai, Japanese, Korean, Bruneian, and many more! We also cover ethnic groups from other regions outside of Asia and this includes, but not limited to: British, French, Australian, Papua New Guinean, IberianFrench, Italian, etc.We have also included other regions, which includes those from Europe. Note that these ethnic groups will be updated and expanded regularly as our science and research develops. If you are curious to find out more, check out the list of ethnicities by heading to this link.
- What is a Haplogroup and are both maternal and paternal lineage tested?
A human haplogroup is defined as a genetic population group sharing a common ancestor on the patriline or/and matriline. Any individuals belong to a haplogroup is then assigned letters of the alphabet and refinements consists of additional numbers. Haplogroups are informative and useful to understand genetic lineage and reveals undiscovered ancient migration routes.
Yes, both the maternal and paternal haplogroups is tested. Note that as females do not have the Y chromosome, their paternal haplogroup and related migration pattern cannot be traced, and it is advised for them to get their brother or father to do the test to reveal this part of the report.
- What is a Paternal Haplogroup?
Tracing paternal haplogroups allow to identify migrations from your paternal line over centuries and shed light about the histories of your male ancestors.
Any individuals belong to a haplogroup, is the assigned letters of the alphabet and refinements consist of additional numbers. The alphabetical ordering does not have any meaning in terms of actual genetic relationships.
Paternal haplogroups and related migrations can be traced for males only. As females do not have the Y chromosome, their paternal haplogroup and related migration pattern cannot be traced, and it is advised for them to get their brother or father to do the test to reveal this part of the report.
- What is Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)?
- mtDNA is a small circular DNA chromosome found inside mitochondria in the cell. mtDNA is passed only from mother to their child through the egg cell. mtDNA is a potential tool to trace back to a single common maternal ancestor and the understanding of human evolution.
- What is a Maternal Haplogroup?
Maternal haplogroups and related migrations can be traced for both females and males as they are passed down by women to their children from generations to generations.
Tracing maternal haplogroups allows to identify migrations from your matriline over centuries and sheds light about the history of your female ancestors. Maternal haplogroups are scientifically and internationally categorized. Any individuals that belong to a haplogroup is assigned letters of the alphabet and the refinements consist of additional numbers. The alphabetical ordering does not have any meaning in terms of actual genetic relationships.
As mutations occur across generations, analyzing the patterns accumulated of mutations allow to identify common ancestors from approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years ago.
- How accurate are the test results?
- GeneLife is actively involved in genetic research and development across multiple domains and has been collaborating in joint research with the National Genetics Institute in Japan for more than three years. This test kit has been specifically developed for Asian populations, unveiling the ethnic origins and migration paths of your ancestors. Multiple sources of research and information have been reviewed and compiled in developing the content featured in this report. As research and science evolves continuously, content might be updated and refreshed on a regular basis. This does not necessarily mean that the customer’s DNA has been changed, rather it should remain the same for the whole life. For some Y-DNA haplogroups, the migration information is less concordant compared to mtDNA haplogroup and migration routes. The prediction on place of origin, period time and distribution of the reported haplogroup are based on sources and current research and may vary based on advancement of research in the future.
- Would my sibling and I need to take the test separately? Will it also differ from other brands?
- Do note that it is possible to have differences in the results between siblings, twins and also results from other brands as research panels and testing or research methods might differ. Results are also based on science and research developments that are continuously evolving, and your results might be updated and refreshed on a regular basis.
- How do you derive the ethnic compositions?
In order to estimate your ethnic composition, we use a reference panel comprising of a range of ethnic groups from Asia and around the world.
Your DNA results have been matched against the reference panel in order to estimate your ethnic composition. All ethnicities might not fully be covered in our reference panel and in such a case, the ethnic group would not be identified in the results provided. Our reference panel will be continuously enriched to ensure most ethnicities are included.
In addition, your ethnic estimate will feature a range of possible percentages by making multiple comparisons of your DNA against our reference panel. While the most consistent and related results will be displayed, the possible range are estimates. This is a very common practice within the industry.
As more users undertake our genetic tests, our panel reference, algorithms and analysis will be enhanced to provide more refined information as well as reflect latest developments, technology updates and new scientific discoveries. We are transparent about our science and look to keep enhancing our algorithms for further accuracy.
- If I find out my ethnicity, can I link this to my health risks and also, can I find my biological parents?
- Often in research, genetics has uncovered various ethnicities or groups that are associated with certain health risks. Please note that this is purely inferred and not verified information. GeneLife Generations does not provide any advice related to your health based on ancestry. The data processed by our specialized lab team is only used for ancestry information and cannot be used to make inferences about the health of our users. We would also like to clarify that there is no intent to use this test as a way to connect with or uncover a customer’s biological parent(s).
- Where has the content in the report come from?
- As you read and explore your report, you will be introduced to fun facts, and historical information that GeneLife has pulled together through official and credible research sites and books. The explanations about your ancestors, migration pattern and geographical details are deeply connected with historical facts. All content has been referenced and tagged for verification purposes. There could be inferences made from the content presented to sensitive events such as war, conflicts, politics, religion, gender or conflict, that are purely presented as part of historical information. GeneLife has remained objective and factual with all content developed, we do not mean any offense to any groups.
- How safe is my genetic information and personal data?
We take extreme precaution to protect all our customers with regards to the use of genetic information and personal data as required by Privacy Laws and METI Genetic Testing Guidelines in Japan. Our company is also certified by The Council for Protection of Individual Genetic Information (CPIGI). To ensure confidentiality, each of our customer’s sample is also encoded so that only you will have access to both your personal information and genetic information. All our employees are routinely trained in Ethical Use and Conduct of Genetic Testing. We also have a strict security and compliance policy to ensure protection of sensitive data.
In terms of using your genetic data for 3rd party research purposes, we give all GeneLife customers the option to opt in to any use of their encoded and anonymized genetic data. In the near future, we will also reward customers who contribute to research in the form of points. You can learn more by downloading our app which is now available on the App store and the Google Play store.
To learn more, please refer to our privacy statement at genelife.asia/privacy.
- Can I download my raw data or get a PDF of my report?
- Unfortunately, we do not provide an option for downloading of raw data or having a PDF report of GeneLife Generations at this time.
- How do I order a GeneLife Generations test kit?
- You can simply order the test kit via our online store here or via our GeneLife app.
- How do I take the test?
- Once you place an order and receive your kit to your doorstep, it is really simple! We have included a user manual to guide you along the process too! All you have to do is provide a sample of your saliva in the tube provided and ship it back to us via the pre-paid envelope included. You can head to this link for a step by step process!
- How long do I need to wait for my test results or report to be out? How do I view it?
- The process takes about 4 to 6 weeks from the time we receive your sample. Once completed, you will receive an update to your registered email address. The report is only viewable via our GeneLife app.
- Is this test suitable for all ages?
- Yes, this test is suitable for all ages. However, customers below the age of 18 will need to get a parent/legal guardian to acknowledge the online consent form on their behalf.
- As a non-Asian, can I take this test?
Yes you can! While this test kit has been specifically developed for Asian populations, we have also included other regions, which includes those from Europe. Note that these ethnic groups will be updated and expanded regularly as our science and research develops.
If you are curious to find out more, check out the list of ethnicities by heading to this link.
- How different is this test from other brands?
- We are specialized in genetic research and testing, having provided genetic tests to the research and medical community for over 16 years. Our position as a leader in Japan is a testament to the trust we have gained with customers over the years. More than 855,000 people have taken their DNA journey with us to date, placing us as a leader in Japan and possibly in Asia. Furthermore, all our tests and products are developed in-house at our own research facility called Genesis Institute of Genetic Research (GIGR) by our highly knowledgeable researchers, scientists, and geneticists. All samples are analysed at our own lab in Tokyo.